Urology is a surgical subspecialty that tackles a wide spectrum of diseases involving the male and female urinary tract, the male reproductive system, and the female pelvic floor. Urologists manage afflictions ranging from genitourinary malignancies (renal cell carcinoma, prostate carcinoma, transitional cell carcinoma, testicular carcinoma, etc. . .) and renal stones to congenital genitourinary defects, perineal reconstruction, and male infertility.